About Sudan

 

General Information

 

 

Geography:

Sudan (North and South) is the largest country in Africa by size (1 million square miles), this size equals seven times the size of Germany. While the population of Germany amounts to over 80 million, North and South has about 40 million inhabitants.

Sudan boarders on the Red Sea and it shares common borders with nine countries: Eritrea and Ethiopia in the East, Kenya, Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo in the South, The Central African Republic, Chad and the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya in the West, and Egypt in the north.

Some important historico-political dates and periodes in the history of Sudan during the 19th century:

There are (12) important historical political dates and periods in sudan modern history since 19s century:

  • Era of Turkish Occupation (Ottoman Empire): (1821 – 1885).
  • First Independence (Mahdism): (1885 – 1899).
  • Condominium (British – Egyptian) occupation: (1899 – 1956).
  • First Civilian War (1955) & second independence (1956)
  • 1st bloodless Military Coup (1958): Ibrahim Aaboad 
  • 1st Sudanese uprising for freedom and democracy (1964). 
  • 2nd Military Coup (1969): Jafar Nimayri, 2nd Civilian War (1983) 
  • 2nd Sudanese uprising for freedom and democracy (1985).
  • 3rd Military Coup (1989): Omer Al-Bashir.
  • Aggravation of Darfur conflict (2002 – 2003).
  • Comprehensive peace talk and agreement (2005).
  • The Referendum of South Sudan 2011: (January & July 2011).

So, since 2011, Sudan splits into two states: Sudan and South Sudan.


 

Sudan Today


Facts about the current situation of Sudan:

  •  The situation of Sudan constitutes a threat to international peace and security according various resolutions of the UN Security Council, the last resolution No: 2047 (2012) issued on 17th of May 2012.

  • There are four hot civilian wars and armed conflict areas in sudan, three in the junctions between the new two states (North & South): (South Kordofan in Nuba Mountains, Blue nile state, and Abyii Area), in addition to Darfur area.

  • Sudan is governed and controlled by Omer H. A. Al-Bashir who is wanted by the International Criminal Court (ICC), according to the warrants of arrest No (ICC-02/05-01/09) issued on 4th of March 2009, and (ICC-02/05-01/09) issued on 12th of July 2010.

  •  Omer Al-bashir is responsible for: War crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide in the region of Darfur.

  • The general human rights situation in Sudan is deteriorating. Sudan witnessed a pattern of political repression with a adulterating environment for civil and political rights, including arrests of political opposition leaders, journalists and peaceful demonstrators, and restrictions on press freedom. This evaluation refers to the report of independent experts on the situation of human rights in Sudan, to the UN- Human Rights Council on 14th of September 2010. 

Wars and conflicts in Sudan result in:

  • 2.5 million Sudanese were killed because of the war in South Sudan, (nearly 80%) of Southern Sudanese were forced to leave their home.
  • During Darfur Crisis: more than 400 000 people were killed and 2.5 million were forced to leave their homes.
  • Thousands of people died in the conflict in South Kordofan, Blue Nile and Abyii this year. 60-70 000 persons were forced to flee home.
  • Hundreds of women were raped, and sexually abused mainly in Darfur region.
  • 40 – 70 000 thousand children are living in the street in big cities, in addition there is the abuse of children as child soldiers. 


More Information:   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudan


 Social Situation

Violations against Children & women in the Conflict Areas

  • Killing and maiming.
  • Rape and other forms of sexual violence.
  • Denial of access to humanitarian aid.
  • Attacks on schools and hospitals.
  • Abductions.
  • Children associated with armed forces and groups.
  • Forced displacement, forced labor and trafficking for labor and sexual purposes.

The Daily Discrimination of Women in Sudan:

  • In 1996 the Sudanese government established in 1996 what is known as public order act (a law), to restrict the freedom of the Sudanese people, mainly of the women, 40 - 50 000 women are arrested every year under articles: 152, 153 and 154 of this law which are about clothing in an indecent way, indecent acts or prostitution.
  • Women are not allowed to travel or move out of sudan unless in a company of her husband, brother, father or adult son. 
  • Female genital mutilation.
  • Forced marriage.
  • Sexual harassment and sexual abuses.
  • Poor health and medical care.
  • Illiteracy among women (46%).